Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductor use to carry electricity and associated device. General aspects of electrical wiring are used to provide power in or to building and structure, commonly to as building wiring.
Electrical wiring whether for residential, commercial or industrial project must be carefully installed and maintained in such a way it will provide safety to person and property. This requires good workmanship, knowledge of electrical principle and circuitry. Familiarity with electrical wiring accessories is an important provision beside an awareness of and strict adherence to the provision of the National Electrical Code (NEC).
The surface wiring is the basic wiring that has been use to many purposes. Usually, this type of wiring does not have any problem encountered such as the view, the alignment and many other aspects. It is the wiring which is installed and can be seen with bare eyes. It is the wiring which is installed and can be seen with bare eyes.
Concealed house wiring is wiring that is covered over by the finish of the building and therefore considered as inaccessible. It is usually for single phase supply of electricity. Building of bricks or concrete is suitable for this type. The mechanical damage can be avoided. There are many cable required during installation. It is also high durability of cable required, small power consumption and usually used PVC insulated conduits.
An electrical conduit is a purpose designed electrical piping system used for protection and routing of electrical wiring. Electrical wiring may be made by metal, plastic, fiber or fired clay. Flexible conduit is also available for special purposes. Conduit is generally installed by electrician at the site of installation of electrical equipment. Its use, form and installation detail are often specified by wiring regulation such as NEC it other national or local code.
There are two types of wiring with are:
- Single phase supply, small power consumption.
- Mostly timber building or half brick/timber.
- Low installation cost.
- Final circuit (less or a few).
- No mechanical damage occurs at site/observed.
- Fast installation.
- Single phase supply.
- Building of bricks or concrete.
- Needs beauty or neatness to wall.
- Mechanical damages can be avoided.
- Many cable required during installation.
- High durability of cables is required.
- Small power consumption.
To choose the type of wiring to be used we have to consider to a few factors. The factors in choosing the type of wiring are:
- To identify the process of electrical wiring installation for the single storey house as given in the laboratory.
- To review and discuss all the process of electrical wiring installation for the single storey house.
- To prepare the schematic diagram for the electrical wiring installation.
- Electrical wiring simple board
- The component of electrical wiring at sample board was identified.
- Suggestion of the electrical devices accessories that suitable to the electrical installation was made.
- The schematic diagram of electrical wiring system was drawn.
- The schematic diagram of current supply for domestic building (house) was drawn.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
|A. GANG M/C SOCKET
||Device commonly employed in domestic installation to facilitate the connection to the main supply of portable lighting fitting and others appliances.
It is fixed and design to receive a plug that carries protruding metal contacts corresponding to recessed contact in he socket outlet.
|B. FAN REGULATOR
||To control the current that flow to the fan.
The higher the speed of the fan, the lasses resistance in the current flow
|C. FLUORESCENT LAMP
|This is low pressure variation of the mercury discharge energized mercury atoms emit ultra violet radiation and a blue light|
||Provide a combination of visible radiation and ultraviolet light.|
|Important component in electrical installation.
Connect the power sources (electricity) and the equipment that use it.
The type of wire depends on the method used/adopted.
Red – live wire
Green – earth wire
Black – neutral wire
|F. EARTH LEAKAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER (ELCB)
safety device used in electrical installations with high earth impedance to prevent shock.
The main purpose of earth leakage protectors is to prevent injury to humans and animals due to electric shock
|G. DIRECT ONLINE STARTER
||Act as the switch to the air conditioner. Let the current flow to the air conditioner|
CURRENT SUPPLY FOR THE DOMESTIC BUILDING
ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
After electricity is produced at power plants is has to get to the customers that use the electricity. Our cities, towns, states and the entire country are crisis-crossed with power lines that “carry” the electricity. As large generators spin, they produce electricity with a voltage of about 25,000 volts. A volt is a measurement of electromotive force in electricity.
The electricity first goes to a transformer at the power plant that boosts the voltage up to 400,000 volts. When electricity travels long distances it is better to have it at higher voltages (more efficiently at high voltages).
The long thick cables of transmission lines are made of copper or aluminum because they have a low resistance. High voltage transmission lines carry electricity long distances to a substation. From this substation, electricity in different power levels is used to run factories, streetcars and mass transit, light street lights and stop light, and is sent to neighborhood.
When electricity enters (example house), it must pass through a meter and goes through a fuse box. The fuse box protects the house in case of problems. When a fuse (circuit breaker) “blows” or “trips” something wrong with an appliance or something was short circuited.
ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION
A process in the delivery of electricity to consumers is the bulk transfer of electrical power. Typically, power transmission is between the power plant and a substation near a populated area. This process can be divided into two phases; primary transmission and secondary transmission.
A set of transformer at bulk transmission station- To raise the generated power (11-25kV) to the high voltages (500kV) used on the high voltage transmission lines called the National Grid. The connection in the transformers from power generated by alternator to the power supplied to the high power lines may be typed Delta to Delta or Delta to Star (Wye) or other combinations.
Delta-star is commonly used because safety of additional neutral line can be incorporated.
Secondary high transmission substation- Consists of step-down transformer from 500kv to 33kV. The power will supply to large heavy industries and various states.
ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION
Electricity power distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. It is generally considered to include medium-voltage (less than 50 kV) power lines, electrical substations and pole mounted transformers, low voltage(less than 1000 V) distribution wiring and sometimes electricity meters.
The process can be divided into two phase;
Primary Distribution Substations
Consists of step-down transformer from 33 kV to 11kV.These will supply the heavy consumption of high-rise commercial buildings, factories of heavy to medium consumption and large cities or suburban areas.
Distribution cables on large unipole- consist of single pole of either reinforced concrete of CHS steel pole with supporting branches on both sides to supports hanging cables. Other method used is by underground due to heavy traffics.
Secondary Distribution Substations
Consists of step-down transformer from 11kV to 415kV or and 240kV.Thes substation usually located within the housing areas, villages or towns.
Distribution cables on small unipole- similar to the poles of primary distribution but used much more common.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on laboratory that we have done, we conclude that Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductor use to carry electricity and associated device. For our report, we find out the process of the electrical wiring installation for single storey house. There are two types of electrical wiring.
The surface wiring is the basic wiring that has been used for many purposes. Another type of wiring is concealed wiring which is wiring that is covered over by the finish of the building and therefore considered as inaccessible. These two wiring are use insulated conduits to avoid the mechanical damages.
An electrical conduit used for protect the electrical wiring. We also prepared the schematic diagram for the electrical before and after wiring installation
For current supply in domestic building, it can be divided into three major works before it is arrive to the consumer to use it in their resident.
The three major step known as electrical power generation which is the production of electric at power plant and then it will go to electrical power transmission which is process in the delivery of electricity to consumers is the bulk transfer of electrical power and last before it go to the consumer is electric power distribution which it will distribute the electric according to the need. Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users.
General aspects of electrical wiring are used to provide power in or to building and structure electrical wiring must be carefully installed and maintained in such a way it will provide safety to persons and property.
This required good workmanship, knowledge of electrical principle and circuitry.